Normal aPTT does not rule out clinically relevant effects of dabigatran. Thrombin time (TT) is highly sensitive to dabigatran. A normal TT rules out clinically important drug levels, but a prolonged TT does not necessarily mean that clinically important drug levels are present. TT is routinely available weekdays from 8am to 4:40 pm.
***** Praxbind 5 g IV is new standard reversal strategy. Discuss with heme whether repeat doses might be needed in specific case.
Laboratory testing to demonstrate residual rivaroxaban/apixaban effect is problematic. The presence of severe bleeding, rather than laboratory results, should be the primary determinant of therapeutic intervention. A prolonged PT/INR might indicate residual rivaroxaban effect , but a normal PT/INR does not rule out clinically relevant effects of rivaroxaban. A normal anti-Xa assay excludes the presence of significant rivaroxaban levels. An abnormal anti-Xa assay might indicate residual rivaroxaban effects but this should not be used as a quantitative assessment of anticoagulant activity. It is unknown whether this applies to apixaban as well.
***** Prothrombin complex concentrate – Kcentra- 50 units/kg x 1 is the preferred first reversal agent and does not require Hematology approval in severe or life-threatening bleeding, or for emergent or urgent procedures. Activated PCC (50-100 units/kg x 1), rFVIIa (20-40 mcg/kg), or subsequent doses of PCC should be considered ONLY if bleeding persists after PCC AND with Hematology approval
Intravenous heparin reversal:
**** Protamine 1 mg for each mg of enoxaparin (1 mg of e noxaparin is equal to 100 international units of anti-Xa activity). Max rate: 50 mg over 10 minutes.
NOTE: Anti-factor Xa activity never completely neutralized (max ~60%-75%).